A RELAÇÃO DOS EFEITOS PERCEPTIVOS DA CORRUPÇÃO
UM EXAME EMPÍRICO DO BRASIL
Palavras-chave:Qualidade, Imagem, Instituições públicas, Implicações da corrupção
O artigo tem como objetivo fornecer evidências empíricas da relação da corrupção nas instituições públicas do país e seus efeitos na imagem e na qualidade percebida do aparato público. Através de uma análise multivariada com 626 respondentes, o modelo conceitual é testado. Como esperado, a corrupção não é um ato consuetudinário, é perverso e não traz efeitos positivos para o país, comprometendo a reputação, a competência e, principalmente, acarretando a perda da confiança na democracia, o desinteresse pela política e a desconfiança em relação às instituições públicas. Nossos resultados sugerem que a corrupção é fenômeno multidimensional com efeitos generalizados e diversos provocando resultados controversos. Uma melhor compreensão da percepção dos efeitos colaterais da corrupção é obtida quando a corrupção é empregada como variável de moderação. Os resultados revelam um efeito negativo potencial na legitimidade democrática. Nosso estudo contribui para a expansão da literatura sobre corrupção versus qualidade e imagem das instituições públicas do país. Concluímos com uma discussão sobre as implicações práticas relacionadas às nossas descobertas.
ACKERMAN, R. S.; SøREIDE, T. International Handbook on the Economics of Corruption. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, v. II, 2011.
AIDT, T. S. Corruption, institutions, and economic development. Oxford review of economic policy, v. 25, n. 2, p. 271-291, 2009.
AMIN, M.; ISA, Z.; FONTAINE, R. Islamic banks: Contrasting the drivers of customer satisfaction on image, trust, and loyalty of Muslim and non-Muslim customers in Malaysia. International Journal of Bank Marketing, v. 31, n. 2, p. 79-97, 2013.
ARCONES, M. A.; WANG, Y. Some new tests for normality based on U-processes. Statistics & probability letters, v. 76, n. 1, p. 69-82, 2006.
BANIAMIN, H. M.; JAMIL, I. Dynamics of corruption and citizens’ trust in anti-corruption agencies in three South Asian countries. Public Organization Review, v. 18, n. 3, p. 381-398, 2018.
BIANCO, W. T. Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1994.
BOLTON, R. N.; DREW, J. H. A multistage model of customers' assessments of service quality and value. Journal of consumer research, v. 17, n. 4, p. 375-384, 1991.
CANACHE, D.; ALLISON, M. E. Perceptions of political corruption in Latin American democracies. Latin American Politics and Society, v. 47, n. 3, p. 91-111, 2005.
CARMELI, A.; TISHLER, A. Perceived organizational reputation and organizational performance: An empirical investigation of industrial enterprises. Corporate Reputation Review, v. 8, n. 1, p. 13-30, 2005.
CARTER, L.; BÉLANGER, F. The utilization of e‐government services: citizen trust, innovation and acceptance factors. Information systems journal, v. 15, n. 1, p. 5-25, 2005.
CARTER, T. S. The failure of environmental regulation in New York. Crime, Law and Social Change, v. 26, n. 1, p. 27-52, 1996.
CARUANA, A. Service loyalty: The effects of service quality and the mediating role of customer satisfaction. European journal of marketing, v. 36, n. 7/8, p. 811-828, 2002.
CHANG, E. C. C.; CHU, Y.-H. Corruption and trust: exceptionalism in Asian democracies? The Journal of Politics, v. 68, n. 2, p. 259-271, 2006.
CHARRON, N.; DIJKSTRA, L.; LAPUENTE, V. Mapping the regional divide in Europe: A measure for assessing quality of government in 206 European regions. Social Indicators Research, v. 122, n. 2, p. 315-346, 2015.
CHETWYND, E.; CHETWYND, F.; SPECTOR, B. Corruption and poverty: A review of recent literature. Washington, DC, p. 1-21. 2003.
CHICA-OLMO, J.; GACHS-SÁNCHEZ, H.; LIZARRAGA, C. Route effect on the perception of public transport services quality. Transport Policy, v. 67, p. 40-48, 2018.
CIZICENO, M.; TRAVAGLINO, G. A. Perceived Corruption and Individuals’ Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Institutional Trust. Social Indicators Research, v. 141, n. 2, p. 685-701, 2019.
CORRADO, G.; ROSSETTI, F. Public corruption: A study across regions in Italy. Journal of Policy Modeling, v. 40, n. 6, p. 1126-1139, 2018.
COSTA, M. A. N. et al. Corporate Social (IR) Responsibility in Brazil: Companies, Power and Ties Intertwined. In: GÓMEZ, L. M.; VARGAS-PRECIADO, L.; CROWTHER, D. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: Concepts, Perspectives and Emerging Trends in Ibero-America. [S.l.]: Emerald Publishing Limited, v. 11, 2017. p. 297-315.
CRESWEL, J. W. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2013.
CREWSON, P. E. Public-service motivation: Building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal of public administration research and theory, v. 7, n. 4, p. 499-518, 1997.
DEL-CASTILLO-FEITO, C.; BLANCO-GONZÁLEZ, A.; GONZÁLEZ-VÁZQUEZ, E. The relationship between image and reputation in the Spanish public university. European Research on Management and Business Economics, v. 25, n. 2, p. 87-92, 2019.
DENTERS, B. Size and political trust: evidence from Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, v. 20, n. 6, p. 793-812, 2002.
DICHTER, E. What's in an image. Journal of consumer marketing, v. 2, n. 1, p. 75-81, 1985.
DOIG, A.; MCLVOR, S. Corruption and its control in the developmental context: an analysis and selective review of the literature. Third World Quarterly, v. 20, n. 3, p. 657-676, 1999.
ERICKSEN, M. K. Using self-congruity and ideal congruity to predict purchase intention: A European perspective. Journal of Euromarketing, v. 6, n. 1, p. 41-56, 1997.
ETTER, M.; RAVASI, D.; COLLEONI, E. Social media and the formation of organizational reputation. Academy of Management Review, v. 44, n. 1, p. 28-52, 2019.
FACHIN, F. F. Towards Organizational Reputation as a Process: A Study with Quebec Filmmakers. Academy of Management Proceedings, v. 212, n. 1, 2018.
FATT, J. P. T. et al. Enhancing corporate image in organisations. Management Research News, v. 23, n. 5/6, p. 28-54, 2000.
FERRAZ, C.; FINAN, F. Fighting Political Corruption: Evidence from Brazil. In: BASU, K.; CORDELLA, T. Institutions, Governance and the Control of Corruption. International Economic Association Series. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. p. 253-284.
FLEISCHER, D. Political corruption in Brazil. Crime, Law and Social Change, v. 25, n. 4, p. 297-321, 1997.
GALLOWAY, L. Quality perceptions of internal and external customers: a case study in educational administration. The TQM Magazine, v. 10, n. 1, p. 20-26, 1998.
GARCÍA-FERNÁNDEZ, J. et al. The effects of service convenience and perceived quality on perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty in low-cost fitness centers. Sport Management Review, v. 21, n. 3, p. 250-262, 2018.
GASTER, L. Quality in Public Services. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1995.
GRAY, E. R.; BALMER, J. M. T. Managing corporate image and corporate reputation. Long range planning, v. 31, n. 5, p. 695-702, 1998.
GRÖNROOS, C. A service quality model and its marketing implications. European Journal of marketing, v. 18, n. 4, p. 36-44, 1984.
GROSSI, G.; PIANEZZI, D. The new public corruption: Old questions for new challenges. Accounting Forum, v. 42, n. 1, p. 86-101, 2018.
HAIR, J. F. et al. Multivariate data analysis. 7. ed. Edinburgh Gate: Pearson, 2014.
HARRISON, E. Corruption. Development in practice, v. 17, n. 4-5, p. 672-678, 2007.
HELM, S.; EGGERT, A.; GARNEFELD, I. Modeling the Impact of Corporate Reputation on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Using Partial Least Squares. In: VINZI, V. E., et al. Handbook of Partial Least Squares: Concepts, Methods and Applications. Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. p. 515-534.
HILLMAN, A. J.; HITT, M. A. Corporate political strategy formulation: A model of approach, participation, and strategy decisions. Academy of management review, 24, n. 4, 1999. 825-842.
HILLMAN, A. J.; KEIM, G. D.; SCHULER, D. Corporate political activity: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 30, n. 6, 2004. 837–857.
HOUSTON, D. J. et al. Citizen trust in civil servants: a cross-national examination. International Journal of Public Administration, v. 39, n. 14, p. 1203-1214, 2016.
HOUSTON, D. J.; HARDING, L. H. Public trust in government administrators: Explaining citizen perceptions of trustworthiness and competence. Public Integrity, v. 16, n. 1, p. 53-76, 2014.
INTERPOL. International Police Agency. Organized crime, 2017. Disponivel em: <https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Organized-crime/Organized-crime>. Acesso em: 05 Fevereiro 2018.
JAIN, A. K. Corruption: A review. Journal of economic surveys, v. 15, n. 1, p. 71-121, 2001.
JAMIL, I.; ASKVIK, S. Citizens’ Trust in Public and Political Institutions in Bangladesh and Nepal. In: JAMIL, I.; AMINUZZAMAN, S. M.; HAQUE, S. T. M. Governance in the Age of Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities for South and Southeast Asia. New York: Springer, 2015. p. 157-173.
JHA, S. et al. The role of corporate image for quality in the formation of attitudinal service loyalty. Journal of Service Research, v. 16, n. 2, p. 155-170, 2013.
JO, H.; HARJOTO, M. A. The causal effect of corporate governance on corporate social. Journal of business ethics, 106, n. 1, 2012. 53–72.
JOHNSON, L. W.; SOUTAR, G. N.; SWEENEY, J. C. Moderators of the brand image/perceived product quality relationship. Journal of Brand Management, v. 7, n. 6, p. 425-433, 2000.
JOHNSTON, M. Public officials, private interests, and sustainable democracy: when politics and corruption meet. In: ELLIOTT, K. A. Corruption in the Global Economy. Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1997. p. 61–82.
JOLY, M. Corruption: The shortcut to disaster. Sustainable Production and Consumption, v. 10, p. 133-156, 2017.
KANDAMPULLY, J.; HU, H. Do hoteliers need to manage image to retain loyal customers? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, v. 19, n. 6, p. 435-443, 2007.
KANDAMPULLY, J.; SUHARTANTO, D. Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image. International journal of contemporary hospitality management, v. 12, n. 6, p. 346-351, 2000.
KANG, G.; JAMES, J. Service quality dimensions: an examination of Grönroos’s service quality model. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, v. 14, n. 4, p. 266-277, 2004.
KANT, R.; JAISWAL, D. The impact of perceived service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction: An empirical study on public sector banks in India. International Journal of Bank Marketing, v. 35, n. 3, p. 411-430, 2017.
KAZEMI, M. S. et al. The effect of E-government service quality on public trust: Case study: Saanat o Madan Bank of Iran. Bankacılık ve Sigortacılık Araştırmaları Dergisi, v. 2, n. 7-8, p. 4-18, 2015.
KELMAN, S. Public choice and public spirit. The Public Interest, v. 87, p. 80-94, 1987. Disponivel em: <https://www.nationalaffairs.com/public_interest/detail/public-choice-and-public-spirit>.
KENNEDY, P. A guide to econometrics. 6. ed. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.
KIM, S.-E. The role of trust in the modern administrative state: An integrative model. Administration & Society, v. 37, n. 5, p. 611-635, 2005.
LANGE, D.; LEE, P. M.; DAI, Y. Organizational reputation: A review. Journal of management, v. 37, n. 1, p. 153-184, 2011.
LANIN, D.; HERMANTO, N. The effect of service quality toward public satisfaction and public trust on local government in Indonesia. International Journal of Social Economics, v. 46, n. 3, p. 377-392, 2019.
LEBLANC, G.; NGUYEN, N. Cues used by customers evaluating corporate image in service firms: An empirical study in financial institutions. International Journal of Service Industry Management, v. 7, n. 2, p. 44-56, 1996.
LEVI, M.; STOKER, L. Political trust and trustworthiness. Annual review of political science, v. 3, n. 1, p. 475-507, 2000.
LEWIS, M. Governance and corruption in public health care systems. Center for Global Development Working, n. 78, p. 1-57, 2006.
LILLIEFORS, H. W. On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American statistical Association, v. 62, n. 318, p. 399-402, 1967.
LUO, Y. Corruption and organization in Asian management systems. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, v. 19, n. 2-3, p. 405-422, 2002.
MANZETTI, L.; WILSON, C. J. Corruption, economic satisfaction, and confidence in government: Evidence from Argentina. The Latin Americanist, v. 49, n. 2, p. 131-139, 2006.
MAROZZI, M. Measuring trust in European public institutions. Social Indicators Research, v. 123, n. 3, p. 879-895, 2015.
MCCRUM-GARDNER, E. Which is the correct statistical test to use? British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, v. 46, n. 1, p. 38-41, 2008.
MEDEIROSA, C. R. D. O.; SILVEIRA, R. A. D. A Petrobrás nas Teias da Corrupção: Mecanismos Discursivos da Mídia Brasileira na Cobertura da Operação Lava Jato. Revista de Contabilidade e Organizações, v. 11, n. 31, p. 12-20, 2017.
MELGAR, N.; ROSS, M.; SMITH, T. W. The perception of corruption. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, v. 22, n. 1, p. 120-131, 2010.
MISHLER, W.; ROSE, R. What are the origins of political trust? Testing institutional and cultural theories in post-communist societies. Comparative political studies, v. 34, n. 1, p. 30-62, 2001.
MITCHELL, G. E.; STROUP, S. S. The reputations of NGOs: Peer evaluations of effectiveness. The Review of International Organizations, v. 12, n. 3, p. 397-419, 2017.
MORSE, S. Is corruption bad for environmental sustainability? A cross-national analysis. Ecology and Society, v. 11, n. 1, p. 22, 2006.
NASIR, M.; BASHIR, A. Examining workplace deviance in public sector organizations of Pakistan. International Journal of Social Economics, v. 39, n. 4, p. 240-253, 2012.
NGUYEN, T. V. et al. Local governance, corruption, and public service quality: evidence from a national survey in Vietnam. International Journal of Public Sector Management, v. 30, n. 2, p. 137-153, 2017.
NYBERG, D. Corporations, Politics and Democracy: Corporate Political Activities as Processes of Corruption. Academy of Management, 1, 2017.
OGBA, I.; TAN, Z. Exploring the impact of brand image on customer loyalty and commitment in China. Journal of Technology Management in China, v. 4, n. 2, p. 132-144, 2009.
PARASURAMAN, A.; ZEITHAML, V. A.; BERRY, L. L. A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. The Journal of Marketing, v. 49, n. 4, p. 41-50, 1985.
PARK, H.; BLENKINSOPP, J. The roles of transparency and trust in the relationship between corruption and citizen satisfaction. International Review of Administrative Sciences, v. 77, n. 2, p. 254-274, 2011.
PÉREZ, J. P.; TORRES, E. M. Evaluation of the organizational image of a university in a higher education institution. Contaduría y Administración, v. 62, n. 1, p. 123-140, 2017.
PERRY, J. L. Measuring public service motivation: An assessment of construct reliability and validity. Journal of public administration research and theory, v. 6, n. 1, p. 5-22, 1996.
PERRY, J. L.; WISE, L. R. The motivational bases of public service. Public administration review, v. 50, n. 3, p. 367-373, 1990.
PINTO, J.; LEANA, C. R.; PIL, F. K. Corrupt organizations or organizations of corrupt individuals? Two types of organization-level corruption. Academy of Management Review, v. 33, n. 3, p. 685-709, 2008.
RAVASI, D. et al. The Formation of Organizational Reputation. Academy of Management Annals, v. 12, n. 2, p. 574-599, 2018.
RICHEY, S. The impact of corruption on social trust. American Politics Research, v. 38, n. 4, p. 676-690, 2010.
RINDOVA, V. P. et al. Being good or being known: An empirical examination of the dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of organizational reputation. Academy of Management Journal, v. 48, n. 6, p. 1033-1049, 2005.
RODRIGUEZ, P.; UHLENBRUCK, K.; EDEN, L. Government corruption and the entry strategies of multinationals. Academy of management review, v. 30, n. 2, p. 383-396, 2005.
ROTH, K. P.; DIAMANTOPOULOS, A. Advancing the country image construct. Journal of Business Research, v. 62, n. 7, p. 726-740, 2009.
ROTHSTEIN, B.; STOLLE, D. The state and social capital: An institutional theory of generalized trust. Comparative politics, v. 40, n. 4, p. 441-459(19), 2008.
ROWLEY, J. Quality measurement in the public sector: Someperspectives from the service quality literature. Total Quality Management, v. 9, n. 2-3, p. 321-333, 1998.
SALMINEN, A.; IKOLA‐NORRBACKA, R. Trust, good governance and unethical actions in Finnish public administration. International Journal of Public Sector Management, v. 23, n. 7, p. 647-668, 2010.
SCHARITZER, D.; KORUNKA, C. New public management: Evaluating the success of total quality management and change management interventions in public services from the employees' and customers' perspectives. Total Quality Management, v. 11, n. 7, p. 941-953, 2000.
SCHULER, D. A.; REHBEIN, K.; CRAMER, R. D. Pursuing strategic advantage through political means: A multivariate approach. Academy of Management Journal, 45, n. 4, 2017.
SHABBIR, A.; MALIK, S. A.; JANJUA, S. Y. Equating the expected and perceived service quality: A comparison between public and private healthcare service providers. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, v. 34, n. 8, p. 1295-1317, 2017.
SHAPIKO, S. S.; WILK, M. B. Approximations for the null distribution of the W statistic. Technometrics, v. 10, n. 4, p. 861-866, 1968.
SHLEIFER, A.; VISHNY, R. W. Corruption. The quarterly journal of economics, v. 108, n. 3, p. 599-617, 1993.
SINGH, K. Quantitative social research methods. Los Angeles: Sage, 2007.
SOLÉ-OLLÉ, A.; SORRIBAS-NAVARRO, P. Trust no more? On the lasting effects of corruption scandals. European Journal of Political Economy, v. 55, p. 185-203, 2018.
SOUSA, L. D.; MORICONI, M. Why voters do not throw the rascals out? A conceptual framework for analysing electoral punishment of corruption. Crime, Law and Social Change, v. 60, n. 5, p. 471-502, 2013.
STOCKEMER, D.; LAMONTAGNE, B.; SCRUGGS, L. Bribes and ballots: The impact of corruption on voter turnout in democracies. International Political Science Review, v. 34, n. 1, p. 74-90, 2013.
TAYLOR, S. A.; CRONIN, J. J.. Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. The Journal of marketing, v. 56, n. 3, p. 55-68, 1992.
TRANSPARENCY INTERNATIONAL. Corruption Perceptions Index 2018, Berlin, 2018. Disponivel em: <www.transparency.org/cpi>. Acesso em: 2018.
TSOURGIANNIS, L. et al. Measuring Citizens Satisfaction from Public Sector Organizations in Greece: The Case of the Regional District of Xanthi. In: KARASAVVOGLOU, A., et al. Economy, Finance and Business in Southeastern and Central Europe. Switzerland: Springer, 2018. p. 711-721. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics.
USLANER, E. M. Trust and corruption revisited: How and why trust and corruption shape each other. Quality & Quantity, v. 47, n. 6, p. 3603-3608, 2013.
VAN DE WALLE, S. Perceptions of corruption as distrust? Cause and effect in attitudes toward government. In: HUBERTS, L. W. J. C.; MAESSCHALCK, J.; JURKIEWICZ, C. L. Ethics and Integrity of Governance: Perspectives Across Frontiers. Cheltenham: Edward, 2008. p. 215-238.
VAN DE WALLE, S.; BOUCKAERT, G. Public service performance and trust in government: the problem of causality. International Journal of Public Administration, v. 26, n. 8-9, p. 891-913, 2003.
VIAN, T.; CRABLE, E. L. Corruption and the Consequences for Public Health. Boston: Elsevier, v. 2, 2017. 26-33 p.
VILLORIA, M.; RYZIN, G. G. V.; LAVENA, C. F. Social and political consequences of administrative corruption: A study of public perceptions in Spain. Public Administration Review, v. 73, n. 1, p. 85-94, 2013.
WALSH, K. Quality and public services. Public Administration, v. 69, n. 4, p. 503-514, 1991.
WANG, C. Service quality, perceived value, corporate image, and customer loyalty in the context of varying levels of switching costs. Psychology & Marketing, v. 27, n. 3, p. 252-262, 2010.
WEATHERFORD, M. S. Measuring political legitimacy. American Political Science Review, v. 86, n. 1, p. 149-166, 1992.
WELSCH, H. Corruption, growth, and the environment: a cross-country analysis. Environment and Development Economics, v. 9, n. 5, p. 663-693, 2004.
XIAO, Y. et al. The corruption footprints of nations. Journal of Industrial Ecology, v. 22, n. 1, p. 68-78, 2018.
ZEITHAML, V. A. Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing, v. 52, n. 3, p. 2-22, 1988.
ZEITHAML, V. A.; PARASURAMAN, A.; BERRY, L. L. Delivering quality service: Balancing customer perceptions and expectations. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
ZHANG, H.; WU, Y.; BUHALIS, D. A model of perceived image, memorable tourism experiences and revisit intention. Journal of destination marketing & management, v. 8, p. 326-336, 2018.
ZUMRAH, A. R. Service quality in Malaysian public sector: The role of transfer of training. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, v. 144, p. 111-117, 2014.
Copyright (c) 2021 Gestão e Sociedade
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Como autor do artigo em anexo autorizo sua publicação, uma vez aprovado, na Revista GES - Gestão e Sociedade. Declaro ser de minha autoria o referido artigo e cedo, a título gratuito e em caráter definitivo, os direitos patrimoniais dele decorrentes. Assumo ainda inteira responsabilidade por seu conteúdo.
Autorizo a GES - Gestão e Sociedade a publicar em meio eletrônico, na Internet ou a reproduzir por outros meios que venha a utiliza, bem como a edição, reedição, adaptação ou distribuição do referido artigo.